Terrorist Recruitment and Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) Programs in Minneapolis-St. Paul – April 2015


Akhtar, Salman. Immigration and Identity: Turmoil, Treatment, and Transformation. Jason Aronson: 1999.

Alahdad, Ziad, et al. “Countering Violent Extremism: Scientific Methods & Strategies.” Topical Strategic Multi-Layer Assessment and Air Force Research Laboratory Multi-Disciplinary White Paper in Support of Counter-Terrorism and Counter-WMD. September 2011.

Al-Shabaab Appears to Call for Attacks on Minnesota’s Mall of America, Other Malls. CBS News. February 21, 2015.

Bjelopera, Jerome P. “Countering Violent Extremism in the United States.” Congressional Research Service. February 19, 2014.

Bradbury, Mark and Sally Healy. “Endless War: A Brief History of the Somali Conflict.” Whose peace is it anyway? Connecting Somali and International Peacemaking. 2010.

Brown, Christopher. Countering Radicalization Refocusing Responses to Violent Extremism within the United States. Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2011.

Carpenter, J. Scott, et al. “Fighting the Ideological Battle: The Missing Link in U.S. Strategy to Counter Violent Extremism.” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. July 2010.

Charmaz, Kathy. Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. London: Sage, 2006.

Corbin, Juliet and Anselm Strauss. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007.

Currier, Cora. “Spies Among Us: How Community Outreach Programs to Muslims Blur Lines between Outreach and Intelligence.” The Intercept. January 21, 2015.

Dickson, Louise. “Revival of the Civic Spirit: Contradictions in Somali-American Citizenship.” Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies. 2011.

Dirie, Fartun. “Mental Maps: Gaining Insight into the Diverse Somali Perceptions of Residential Desirability in the Twin Cities.” Midwestern Undergraduate Geography Symposium, Macalester College. April 27, 2013.

Executive Staff, FBI National Security Branch. “A New Approach to Countering Violent Extremism: Sharing Expertise and Empowering Local Communities.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. October 2014.

Farah, Mohamed. “Press Conference Statement.” Somali Current. January 20, 2015.

Farid, Mohamed, and Don McMahan. Accommodating and Educating Somali Students in Minnesota Schools: A Handbook for Teachers and Administrators. St. Paul, MN: Hamline University Press, 2004.

FBI Minneapolis. “Somali-American Ka Joog Organization Honored for Community Leadership.” Press Release. October 25, 2012.

Fergusson, James. The World’s Most Dangerous Place: Inside the Outlaw State of Somalia. Da Capo Press, 2013.

Fukuyama, Francis. “Identity, Immigration, and Liberal Democracy.” Journal of Democracy. 17, no. 2 (2006): 5-20.

Gerges, Fawaz. Journey of the Jihadist: Inside Muslim Militancy. Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt, 2006.

Gessen, Masha. The Brothers: The Road to an American Tragedy. New York: Riverhead Books, 2015.

Ghalib, Jama Mohamed. The Cost of Dictatorship: The Somali Experience. New York: Lilian Barber Press, 1995.

Goodstein, Laurie. “Police in Los Angeles Step Up Efforts to Gain Muslims Trust.” The New York Times. March 9, 2011.

Goodstein, Laurie. “U.S. Muslims Take On ISIS Recruiting Machine.” The New York Times. February 19, 2015.

Hammond, Laura, et al. “Cash and Compassion: The Role of the Somali Diaspora in Relief, Development, and Peace-Building.” UN Development Programme. 2011.

Hansen, Stig Jarle. Al-Shabaab in Somalia: The History and Ideology of a Militant Islamist Group, 2005-2012. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.

Harper, Mary. Getting Somalia Wrong?: Faith, War and Hope in a Shattered State. London: Zed Books, 2012.

Hellyer, Caroline. “ISIL courts al-Shabab as al-Qaeda ties fade away.” al Jazeera. Mar 23 2015.

Helmus, Todd, Erin York and Peter Chalk. “Promoting Online Voices for Countering Violent Extremism.” RAND Corporation. 2013.

Henry, Devin. “U.S. Attorney Luger Pitches Outreach Plan to Fight Terror Recruitment, with a Promise: ‘No Surveillance.’” Minneapolis Post. February 19, 2015.

Holmer, Georgia. “Countering Violent Extremism: A Peacebuilding Perspective.” United States Institute of Peace. August 29, 2013.

Horgan, John. Walking Away from Terrorism: Accounts of Disengagement from Radical and Extremist Movements. London: Routledge, 2009.

Husain, Ed. The Islamist: Why I Joined Radical Islam in Britain, What I Saw inside and Why I Left. London: Penguin, 2007.

Kapteijns, Lidwien. Clan Cleansing in Somalia: The Ruinous Legacy of 1991. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

Kenya attack: 147 dead in Garissa University assault. BBC News. April 3, 2015.

Kerry, John. “Outlining an Action Agenda to Counter Violent Extremism.” U.S. Department of State. February 19, 2015.

Khalil, Lydia. “US Counter-radicalisation Strategy: the Ideological Challenge.” Australian Strategic Policy Institute. January 11, 2011.

Kosseim, Amin. “Counter-radicalization Best Practices in the United States and Lessons Learned from Abroad.” Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2011.

Koumpilova, Mila. “New Somali Refugee Arrivals in Minnesota Are Increasing.” Minneapolis Star-Tribune. November 1, 2014.

Lemke, Parker. “In Cedar-Riverside protest, youth link terrorist recruitment to lack of resources.” Twin Cities Daily Planet. October 1, 2014.

Leiter, Michael. Nine Years after 9/11 Confronting the Terrorist Threat to the Homeland: Hearing before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. United States Senate. Washington, DC: GPO, 2011.

Levitt, Matthew. “From the Boston Marathon to the Islamic State: Countering Violent Extremism.” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. April 1, 2015.

Longstaff, Patricia, Nicholas Armstrong, Keli Perrin, Whitney May Parker, and Matthew Hidek. “Building Resilient Communities: A Preliminary Framework for Assessment.” Homeland Security Affairs. 6, no. 3 (2010).

Lyden, Tom. “EXCLUSIVE: Man booted from Minn. mosque an ISIS recruiter or FBI mole?” Fox 9 KMSP-TV. October 5, 2014.

McEnroe, Paul and Allie Shah. “Federal Grand Jury Targets Local Terrorist Pipeline.” Minneapolis Star-Tribune. September 20, 2014.

Nelson, Rick and Ben Bodurian. “A Growing Terrorist Threat? Assessing ‘Homegrown’ Extremism in the United States.” Center for Strategic and International Studies. March 2010.

Neumann, Peter. “Foreign fighter total in Syria/Iraq now exceeds 20,000; surpasses Afghanistan conflict in the 1980s.” International Centre for the Study of Radicalization. January 26, 2015.

Neumann, Peter. Preventing Violent Radicalization in America. Bipartisan Policy Center. June 2011.

New Day. “Group Works to Counter Radicalization.” CNN. January 20, 2015.

Obama, Barack. “Remarks by the President at the Summit on Countering Violent Extremism.” The White House. February 19, 2015.

Office of the Press Secretary. “Statement from the Press Secretary on the White House Summit on Countering Violent Extremism.” The White House. January 11, 2015.

Olsen, Jennie. “EXTENDED INTERVIEW: U.S. Attorney Discusses Terrorism in Minnesota.” KSTP. February 18, 2015.

Onyanga-Omara, Jane. “British YouTube Star Keeps Kids off the Extremist Path.” USA Today. April 6, 2015.

Onyanga-Omara, Jane. “Teens Stopped at Sydney Airport on Suspicion of Trying to Join ISIL.” USA Today. March 8, 2015.

Patton, Michael Quinn. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002.

Perkins, Samuel J. Homegrown Terror and American Jihadists: Addressing the Threat. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2011.

Phinney, Jean, et al. “Ethnic Identity, Immigration, and Well-Being: An Interactional Perspective.” Journal of Social Issues. 57, no. 3 (2001): 493-510.

Radio Interview with Zakaria Maruf. Transcript. The New York Times. July 11, 2009.

Rice, Susan. “Remarks by National Security Advisor Susan E. Rice at the White House Summit on Countering Violent Extremism.” The White House. February 19, 2015.

Ross, Daveed. My Year Inside Radical Islam: A Memoir. New York: Penguin, 2007.

Sageman, Marc. Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-first Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

Schanzer, David, Charles Kurzman and Ebrahim Moosa. “Anti-Terror Lessons of Muslim-Americans.” National Institute of Justice. January 6, 2010.

Shane, Scott. “From Minneapolis to ISIS: An American’s Path to Jihad.” The New York Times. March 21, 2015.

Somanader, Tanya. “President Obama on the Causes and Antidotes to Violent Extremism.” The White House. February 19, 2015.

Southers, Erroll. Homegrown Violent Extremism. Routledge, 2013.

Sol Price School of Public Policy. “USC’s CREATE Works with ‘Average Mohamed,’ a Grassroots Effort to Counter Foreign Fighters.” University of Southern California. January 29, 2015.

Stern, Jessica. “ISIS’s Apocalyptic Vision.” Hoover Institution, Stanford University. February 25, 2015.

Stern, Jessica. Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: Ecco, 2003.

United States Census Bureau. “2013 American Community Survey of Somalis 3-yr Estimate.” U.S. Department of Commerce. 2013.

United States Government Accountability Office. “Countering Violent Extremism Additional Actions Could Strengthen Training Efforts: Report to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.” GAO-13-79. 2012.

United States Senate. “The Roots of Violent Islamist Extremism and Efforts to Counter It.” Hearing before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Washington, DC: GPO, 2009.

United States Senate. “U.S. Government Efforts to Counter Violent Extremism.” Hearing before the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities of the Committee on Armed Services. Washington, DC: GPO. 2011.

United States Senate Minority and Majority Staff. Violent Islamist Extremism, the Internet, and the Homegrown Terrorist Threat. Washington, DC: U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. 2008.

Weine, Steven, et al. “Community and Family Approaches to Combating the Radicalization of Somali-American Refugee Youth and Young Adults: A Psychosocial Perspective.” Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict. 2 (2009).

Weine, Steven, and Osman Ahmed. “Building Resilience to Violent Extremism Among Somali‐Americans in Minneapolis‐St. Paul.” National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. August 2012.  

White House. “Empowering Local Partners to Prevent Violent Extremism in the United States.” August 2011.

Wood, Graeme. “What ISIS Really Wants.” The Atlantic. March 2015.

Yan, Holly and Nima Elbagir. “Authorities Scramble to Find Teen Girls Before They Join ISIS.” CNN. February 23, 2015.

Yuen, Laura. “Luger Releases Minnesota Anti-Radicalization Plan.” MPR News. November 24, 2014.

Yuen, Laura. “Suspicions, Speculation Grow as FBI’s Minn. Terror Probe Churns.” MPR News. November 13, 2014.

Yuen, Laura. “Twin Cities Leaders Take Anti-extremism Efforts to White House.” MPR News. January 23, 2015.

Report Sections